• You can see the heavy sativa influence in this bud as evidenced by the long slender leaves. The indica influence thickens up the bud and ads weight.

  • Water and fertilize plants when they need it. You will need to develop a little bit of experience to gain the skill necessary to harvest a great crop.

  • Use a small 10X loupe to help identify garden pests.

  • This sugary bud to date has on name, but the grower is thinking about calling her “Frosty.”

  • This bud with no name is one of the ones from a Mexican breeding program.

  • This bud was harvested three days after the photo was snapped. As you can see she is more than a handful!

  • This beautiful photo of resin glands was taken with the help of a reddish light filter. They are normally clear to translucent in color.

  • This beautiful bud is still being developed. It must be stabilized, but for now it is packed with resin!

  • The purples really come out in this experimental bud. The temperatures drop to 30-40 degrees F at night. The cold weather makes the buds turn purple.

  • The Dutch growers from Nirvana keep every square centimetre of the grow room full of plants and make sure there is plenty of ventilation and air circulation.

  • Start small plants indoors in February or March under 18-24 hours of light. Move them outdoors early and plants get big!

  • Richard Lee is the head of the Oaksterdam University in California. Oaksterdam University boasts more than 10,000 graduates!

  • Plant the proper strains in your garden and they will blend in with the rest of the plants.

  • Once this grower selects the buds he wants to grow, he will make cuttings and name them. Until then, he is growing plants with no name.

  • Male pre-flowers develop 3-4 branch internodes from the top of the plant. Look for a small little nub that later turns into a pollen sack.

  • Increasing the phosphorus and potassium and decreasing the nitrogen makes buds swell and adds weight. Use plastic netting so air can circulate in between buds.

  • If you followed instructions last month and covered plants to give them 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness, your plants should be developing early flowers like this.

  • If allowed to grow to develop pre-flowering males develop pronounced flowers full of male pollen. Remove males carefully to avoid pollinating female plants.

  • I was very taken by this yet-to-be-named cross. The grower mixed several selections from THSeeds

  • Harvest big buds like this under a 12 hour day 12 hour night light schedule. This is the tried and true light schedule to grow the biggest buds!

  • Hard to believe this bud will put on 30 percent more resin when harvested in 2-3 weeks.

  • Grow giant plants like this outdoors this year! Sometimes plants like this will have leaves with 9-finger leaves.

  • Grow as many seedlings as possible to set outdoors this summer. You can germinate seeds between paper towels or sew seed directly in soil. Remember to keep soil evenly moist!

  • Greenhouse growing is another way to harvest heavy and spend little on electricity!

  • Distinctive bud in Mexican breeding program grows clusters of dense leaves.

  • Discolored leaves denote nutrient deficiencies. This leaf is also very brittle.

  • Container-grown plants can be moved indoors on cool or wet days or nights. Keep a close eye on these plants!

  • Breeding is a difficult. This bud is heavy, but the high concentration of leaves make it unappealing. Most often it is best to start with good seeds from a reputable breeder.

  • Beautiful big resinous bud! This came from a farm with many experimental plants.

  • Always buy quality seeds from a reputable company such as Euphoria from Dutch Passion

  • Air ventilation and circulation are essential when thick flowering buds develop. Keep the air cranked up to discourage bud mold and insect attcks.

  • White Widow seeds germinate in a few days when they are given good clean water. Use distilled water when germinating seeds.

  • This well-grown Jack Herer bud is about half way to flower. It will put on much more resin as the bud fattens up!

  • This resin squirting B.C. Kush from Next Generation Seed grows well indoors or outdoors.

  • This heavy hitting BC Kush from Next Generation is an example of one of the many Kush strains available today.

  • This Blue Dynamite from Next Generation lives up to its name. Pistils and bud leaves turn blue as flowering progresses.

  • There are several great strains of Hash Plant from different breeders. This lip-licking bud is still several weeks from peak maturity.

  • The Purps (purple) buds were the most popular in California in 2010.

  • Power Plant is still one of the strongest growers and heaviest producing plants.

  • Many growers are growing purple strains like this Holland Hope. Although no more potent than “green” strains, consumers demand the Purps!

  • I love these little Exile plants. The growth is compact with a very high bud to leaf ratio. The leaves are so big they are easy to remove.

  • Buddha’s Sister is a strong plant that starts forming resin early during flowering.

  • Bonkers is a good name for this strain from Next Generation because the resin glands are so tall and pervasive.

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The Cannabis Encyclopedia, Chapter 7: Clones and Cloning

Excerpt from Jorge’s Upcoming Book:

The Cannabis Encyclopedia: Indoor, Outdoor and Greenhouse Cultivation, Concentrates and Cooking Medical Marijuana

Cannabis Encyclopedia

Chapter 7: Clones and Cloning


Preparing to Clone

Cloning is the most traumatic incident cannabis plants can experience, aside from harvest. Clones go through an incredible transformation when they change from a severed green growing tip to a rooted plant. Their entire chemistry changes; the stem that once grew leaves must now grow roots in order to survive. Clones are at their most fragile point in life just after being cut.


Big, healthy growth like this makes excellent clones.

While rooting, clones require a minimum of nitrogen but increased levels of phosphorus to promote root growth. Sprays should be avoided during rooting, as they compound cloning stress. Given good instruction and a little experience, most gardeners achieve a consistent, 100 percent clone survival rate.


All of these stems were cut on an angle so that more interior stem surface is exposed. This is where many roots will grow.

Large cuttings having large stems packed with starch will grow roots more slowly than small clones with small stems will. The excess starch in moist substrate also attracts diseases. Thin-stemmed clones have fewer reserves (accumulated starch), but they only need enough reserve energy to initiate root growth.

Small clones with a few leaves need less moisture and will root faster than big cuttings with many leaves. At first leaves contain moisture, but after a few days the stem is no longer able to supply enough moisture to the leaves, and the clone suffers stress. A small amount of leaf space is all that is necessary for photosynthesis to supply enough energy for root growth.


These little clones were just taken and still need to get used to the new environment. When they grow roots, they will look much stronger.

Integrity in Parents

1. Maintain 18-to-24-hour day photo period
2. Keep plants healthy
3. Grow for 6 to 12 months
4. Report as needed

Average Root Growth in Cannabis Clone

Cell division starts
First root nubs form
Roots start to grow
Enough roots to transplant
Cut From Young
Day 4
Day 6
Day 7
Day 14
Cut From Old
Day 6
Day 10
Day 20
Day 28



This chart shows average times for roots to grow from the stem.
Note: Clones taken from younger growth root faster than those taken from older growth.


Easy-to-clone plants

Look for plants that dawn small (rootlet) nubs (primordia) near the base of the trunk. Such plants tend to strike roots exceptionally fast.

Most ‘Skunk’ and indica varieties grow roots easily.

Difficult-to-clone plants

Ruderalis crossed with indica or sativa varieties are autoflowering and do not make suitable mother plants.

Outdoor varieties with a slight tendency to pre-sex (designate sex) in an 18-hour photoperiod include: ‘Early Girl’, ‘Early Skunk’, and many others. Check with seed companies for details. But early flowering does not exclude them as mother plants.

Clones taken from weak, leggy mother plants most often produce weak, leggy clones. Harvested plants that have been induced back into vegetative growth can also produce weak clones if not fully reverted.


Clones root well within a slightly acidic pH range of 5.5 to 6.6. Aeroponic clone gardens normally do best with a pH of 5.4 to 5.6. Most diseases grow poorly below these pH levels. Always make sure there is plenty of air in the rooting medium to stimulate root growth.

Do not kill clones with kindness and fertilizer. At best, giving clones an excess dose of fertilizer causes rooting to be delayed. In fact, a dose of ammonium nitrate, a common salt-based fertilizer, will actually stop root hairs from growing.

Inexperienced gardeners and diseased plants cause most clone-rooting problems. Weak plants that lack vigor provide slow-rooting, weak clones. Poor growing conditions also affect the strength of clones.

See “Dipping Clones in Miticide” in Chapter 7, Clones and Cloning. Watch out for dips that coat leaves too heavily. The dip should cover well enough to protect plants with insecticidal and fungal properties, yet allow stomata to breathe.


Clean room: leaves on the floor are cleaned away three to four times daily.

If a spider mite infestation occurs, many gardeners destroy infested clones and start over with clean clones. Others spray with aerosol pyrethrum or another organic miticide. Remember, all pesticides—natural or not—are phytotoxic. Spraying cuttings is a bad idea in general, including antidesiccant sprays. Sprays clog stomata and can impair root growth in clones. If you must use sprays, use natural organic sprays, apply them when it is cool, and keep their use to a minimum. See “Spraying” chapter 24, Pests and Diseases.


Transplant clones before they become rootbound!

The roots on this clone are circling the container and the roots near the center are already turning dark, signifying overwatering and pending death. Do not over water clones. Keep the medium evenly moist but do not let it get soggy. Any kind of stress disrupts plants and slows rapid growth. Different mediums need distinct watering schedules. Rockwool holds water for a long time, while peat pellets need watering more often. Clones are tender;they have a small developing root system and need extra vigilance now.


Richard Lee, Oaksterdam University, inspects clones in a spotless clone room.

Keep the cloning area clean. Do not take clones where fungus spores and diseases are hiding! Pythium flourishes in high temperatures and excessive moisture. Powdery mildews prefer cool moist conditions. Spider mites, whiteflies, and thrips love weak, tender clones. Remove infested clones from the cloning room. Cooler, humid conditions, 65°F to 78°F (18°C–25°C), inhibit most mite reproduction and avert infestations. But cool, humid conditions may increase chances of specific fungal attacks.

To read more, click here to purchase The Cannabis Encyclopedia: Indoor, Outdoor and Greenhouse Cultivation, Concentrates and Cooking Medical Marijuana

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The Cannabis Encyclopedia, Chapter 8: Flowering

Excerpt from Jorge’s Upcoming Book:

The Cannabis Encyclopedia: Indoor, Outdoor and Greenhouse Cultivation, Concentrates and Cooking Medical Marijuana

Cannabis Encyclopedia

Chapter 8: Flowering


Indica, Sativa and Ruderalis


This Original Afghani #1 from 1978 had reddish stigmas, but more often this variety would have white stigmas.

Induce sativa and indica varieties and crosses to flower in greenhouses and indoors by giving plants more hours of total darkness and fewer hours of light. Outdoors, cannabis will flower when it receives 12 hours or more of darkness daily. Give cannabis 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness and 12 hours of light to induce visible signs of flowering in two weeks or less.This program is effective in all but the latest blooming pure sativa varieties.


Small buds are developing on this Chocolope clone two weeks after inducing flowering with a 12-hour photoperiod.

Medicinal cannabis gardeners with a vegetative room illuminated 18-24 hours a day and a flowering room or greenhouse with 12-hour days and 12-hour nights, create environments that mimic the photoperiod in spring and fall. With this simple combination a crop can be harvested every six to ten weeks. In warm southern climates or with the help of artificial light, the harvest can last all year.


These little clones have just started to flower.

Plants show sex, male or female flowers, during the pre-flowering stage which actually occurs during vegetative growth, but it is described below. Once the sex of the plant is established, males unless used for breeding, are harvested before they shed pollen, and females are coaxed into higher yields. Once the photoperiod is set, disrupting it can cause plants to suffer stress. If they suffer enough stress, intersex (hermaphrodite) tendencies increase. Water intake of flowering plants is usually somewhat less than in the vegetative stage. Adequate water during flowering is important for plants to carry on internal chemistry and cannabinoid production. Withholding water to “stress” a plant will actually stunt growth and diminish yield.


This pure sativa from Mexico shows classic long thin leaf blades.


This is the tall Durban Poison phenotype. Note the large narrow-blade sativa leaves.

Pure Sativa cannabis has its origins in tropical regions. These varieties are accustomed to 12-hours of sunlight and equal darkness all year round. The climate is such that they have a long and temperate growing season with leisurely and consistent growth. Super intense sunlight can be difficult for them to assimilate. Many tropical sativa varieties grow under the shade of the jungle canopy. Indoors, gardeners often give pure tropical sativas too much light. The result is even smaller and lighter flower buds. Lamps set further away or use lower wattage that produce less intensity and heat. Plants do not get as hot and receive adequate light to grow big flower buds.


Foto pure sativa darkened to simulate night – or cut in the moon

Give pure sativas more darkness and less light to induce flowering. Give pure tropical sativas 11 or 12 hours of light and 13 or 12 hours of darkness to induce flowering. Some gardeners go so far as to gradually decrease daylight hours to 10 daily with 14 hours or more of darkness. Such practices simulate native climates which gives plants a chance to express their genetics. This technique will promote bigger flower buds.


Auto-flowering feminized plant was bred to be grown in a Sea of Green.

Auto-flowering cannabis ruderalis varieties do not require long nights to flower. C. ruderalis starts to flower within a month of germinating. Many auto-flowering cannabis ruderalis varieties are ready to harvest 70 days after planting and produce up to 4 ounces (112 gm) of dried medicinal flower buds when grown properly. European breeders have feminized many auto-flowering varieties. To date, the top varieties produce 3-3.5 ounces (80-100 grams) in 70-80 days.

Different Flowering Light/Dark Schedules

1. 12/12 – standard day/night schedule for most plants
2. 12/12 – switch to 11/13 after one week and 10/14 after two weeks. This is the schedule for tropical sativa varieties like Haze.
3. 12/12 – flower for three weeks then increase light to 11/13. Flowering is prolonged but harvest is increased. Note: often indica-dominant varieties flower about the same.
4. 24 hours – flowering regime for daylight-neutral C. ruderalis crosses with C. indica and C. sativa.
Note: See “Photoperiod” in Chapter 17, Light, Lamps and Electricity for more detailed information on indica, sativa and ruderalis varieties and flowering.

Stress and Sex

08-SS-2014-Jorge-Ch-08 -MG-6676

If the photoperiod bounces around it causes plants to suffer stress. Make sure the timer works properly and inspect periodically.


A tiny male flower can be seen on this little female flower cluster. The male flower appeared after low temperatures caused the plant to suffer stress.

Bouncing the photoperiod around and dynamically raising or lowering the temperature has the effect of producing more male plants. I recently spoke to a gardener that induced male flowers on a female plant by lowering the nighttime temperature (normally 70º F [21º C) to 60º F(15º C) for two weeks.

Note: Each stimulus – temperature, photoperiod, etc. – creates a climate that causes plants to suffer stress. And, the stressful environment does not necessarily turn the entire plant male. Most often a few hard-to-spot male pollen sacks appear sporadically on a few branches. The most susceptible plants already have a predisposition to intersexuality.

There are several ways to promote male or female plants during seedling growth. (See “Grow More Female Plants from Seed” in Chapter 05.) The most dependable way to deduce sex is “Cloning for Sex” (see Chapter 07).


Do not remove large fan leaves to allow more intense light to reach small buds or to stress plants! Large leaves are packed with food for the plant! They are essential to plant health and vitality. Indoors and in greenhouses where the hours of darkness are controlled, cannabis flowers for six to ten weeks or longer. This is a very short time. Hacking off foliage – leaves and branch tips – to initiate more budding sites is somewhat effective. Most of the lower leaves supply the roots and upper leaves supply energy to the top and promote flower growth. Remove only leaves that are more than 50 percent damaged by diseases, pests, and cultural practices. For example the yellow leaves hanging straight down should be removed.

To read more, click here to purchase The Cannabis Encyclopedia: Indoor, Outdoor and Greenhouse Cultivation, Concentrates and Cooking Medical Marijuana

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The Cannabis Encyclopedia, Chapter 10: Garden Rooms

Excerpt from Jorge’s Upcoming Book:

The Cannabis Encyclopedia: Indoor, Outdoor and Greenhouse Cultivation, Concentrates and Cooking Medical Marijuana

Cannabis Encyclopedia


Chapter 10: Garden Rooms



Garden rooms require a secure space, consistent environment, and a regular maintenance schedule. They also increase carbon footprint. Climate, consistency, and security are the best reasons to garden indoors. Medical cannabis can also be started in a garden room and moved into a greenhouse or outdoors. Plants get an early start with minimal environmental impact when moved outdoors.

To set up a garden room, you must first assess needs and desires. How much medicinal cannabis do you want to grow? How much time, space, and money are you able to invest to achieve this goal? Do you want to build the garden room, or do you prefer to purchase a prefabricated “grow closet?” Building a garden room takes time, skill, and a budget. The room will also need adequate electrical power, an air ventilation outlet, and a source of clean water.


Growing an indoor garden like this from start to finish requires an investment of time, money, planning, and hard work.

Your personality traits and habits are also important to consider. Do you have a regular schedule? Do you have enough time to dedicate to this project? Do you start projects and tend to not finish them? Are you away from home several days at a time? All of these factors figure into your ability to maintain an indoor medical cannabis garden.

You will have to make your own clones if a source of clones is not readily available. You will have to divide the room in two to form a clone/mother room and a flowering room. The harvest can be periodic or perpetual.

Once divided, the rooms need vent fans and filters, circulation fans, hygrometers/thermometers, and sources of water and electricity.

The size of the garden space dictates the type, wattage, and number of lamps. The most efficient lights with the highest lumens-per-watt conversion include CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) and HIDs (high intensity discharge lamps). CFLs are available in various lengths and wattages. See Chapter 17, Light, Lamps and Electricity, for more information on each type of lamp.

The goal of the garden room is to supply everything that medical cannabis needs to grow well.

02 SS 2014 Jorge Ch  10 38_elements

Air 20%

  • temperature
  • humidity
  • CO2 and O2 content

Light 20%

  • spectrum (color)
  • intensity
  • photoperiod (hours of light per day)

Water 20%

  • temperature
  • pH (a measure of acidity or alkalinity)
  • EC (electrical conductivity)
  • O2 content

Nutrients 20%

  • composition
  • purity

Growing Medium 20%

    • air content
    • moisture content

03 SS 2014 Jorge Ch 10 barrel text layers

This barrel full of water illustrates that cannabis will grow only as fast as its most limiting factor. Light, air, and imbalanced soil are most often the factors that limit growth indoors.

Carbon Footprint

According to a study by Evan Mills, PhD*, indoor cannabis gardeners use 1 percent of all electricity in the USA, shelling out $5 billion dollars to electric utility companies every year. This is the equivalent use of 2 million average households. Approximately 22 billion kilowatt hours are consumed.California, one of 16 states to allow cultivation of medical cannabis, is estimated to consume 3 percent of all electricity in the state. Gasoline and diesel electric generators use about 140 gallons (530 L) of fuel to produce one plant.

*Read the summary and full report, Energy up in Smoke: the Carbon Footprint of Indoor Cannabis Production, at http://evan-mills.com/energy-associates/Indoor.html


Even efficient indoor rooms like this one create a carbon footprint. Fortunately, these plants will be moved outdoors in the coming weeks.

Gardeners cultivate medical cannabis indoors to produce high-quality crops and keep their high-value produce from thieves. Keeping cannabis illegal increases the carbon footprint of gardeners. Criminalizing cannabis contributes to long driving distances, odor and noise suppression, and off-grid fossil fuel power production.

Reduce your carbon footprint by reducing your use of electricity, gas, and diesel fuel. Promote renewable energy generation. Use indoor grow room heating, cooling, and lighting systems more efficiently. Install photovoltaic (PV) solar panels.

More efficient growing practices lower carbon footprints, as does using lower-wattage lamps and fewer electrical and fossil fuel–using devices. Employing all the natural principles possible will help lower carbon footprints. Human caloric energy is much less expensive than fossil fuel energy, and we can make more human energy quickly, but fossil fuel energy takes a very long time to recreate.Growing medical cannabis outdoors eliminates most costs other than for a few tools, transport, water, soil amendments, and fertilizer.

Mix your own fertilizers from simple, readily available elements. When you purchase local ingredients and mix your own organic fertilizers, you are supporting local industry and farmers. You are also lowering your overall carbon footprint by decreasing transport, packaging, and sales costs.

Use online tools to qualify your carbon footprint. Enter information on electricity, gas and diesel fuel usage and vehicle fuel consumption, and renewable energy generation to measure your total carbon footprint.Take a couple of minutes to fill out the Nature Conservancy’s carbon footprint calculator (www.nature.org/greenliving/carboncalculator/index.htm) to get an idea of the environmental waste you produce.

Closed (Sealed) Rooms

Closed or sealed garden rooms have most all of the qualities found in a phytotron, a scientific growth chamber, and they create a very big carbon footprint. Just like a phytotron, precise control of each factor—light, temperature, humidity, CO2, and so forth—can be individually controlled in a closed room. The room is sealed completely so all air that enters and exits is controlled. Targeted specifically at the high-tech gardener, sealed rooms are for gardeners with advanced skills.


This enclosed room has its ballasts outside so the entire room can be sealed off. In fact, a fire started in this room several months before this photograph was taken. Since the room was tightly sealed, limited oxygen was available and the fire went out. After the fire, the gardener moved the source of the fire—ballasts—out of the room. Do not count on fires putting themselves out in sealed rooms, however. This gardener got lucky!


This sealed room is set up and ready for the gardener to bring in clones and start growing. The entire room is spotless and free of pathogens.

The room must be sealed completely so that no air enters or exits. Caulk all corners and put weatherstripping around doors. Some gardeners install a vent fan to create a very small amount of negative pressure. An air conditioner is essential to supply fresh filtered air.

A sophisticated air filter can be installed to scrub ethylene, nitrous oxides, and other contaminants such as fungi from the air in the room and precisely control fresh air exchange.

A 20-pound CO2 tank lasts two weeks in a sealed room with ten1,000-watt lamps. The room must be equipped with a big air conditioner to adequately dehumidify and cool the air. The grower must figure out how many watts the air conditioner uses , and how much it will cool the room.

Recommended Btu Requirements for A/C in Sealed Rooms

Cumulative Watts A/C Btu’s Moderate Temp A/C Btu’s Low Temp
1 1,000 600 4,000 2,400 3,300 2,000
2 2,000 1,200 8,000 4,800 6,600 4,000
3 3,000 1,800 12,000 7,200 9,900 6,000
4 4,000 2,400 16,000 9,600 13,200 8,000
5 5,000 3,000 20,000 12,000 16,500 10,000
10 10,000 6,000 40,000 24,000 33,000 20,000


Fuel Type Btu’s per Unit of Fuel
Shelled corn 6,300 Btu’s per pound
Propane 91,500 Btu’s per gallon
Natural gas 100,000 Btu’s per therm
Kerosene 127,000 Btu’s per gallon
Electricity 3,413 Btu’s per kilowatt hour

GroBots  are able to perform robotic control including remote iPhone video monitoring. A fully equipped 12-light grow room costs $80,000 USD and has a big carbon footprint. The initial out-of-pocket cost is more than $6,500 per installed 1,000-watt lamp. It will take two perfect and heavy harvests to cover the initial cost—not including genetics, growing supplies, and electricity. Turnkey convenience is expensive in both money and carbon footprint. A small single-light homemade semi-sealed garden room costs about $1,000 USD to set up and performs nearly the same level of control.

To read more, click here to purchase The Cannabis Encyclopedia: Indoor, Outdoor and Greenhouse Cultivation, Concentrates and Cooking Medical Marijuana

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Jorge’s Speech for High Times Lifetime Achievement Award

High Times
Lester Grinspoon Lifetime Achievement Award
Jorge Cervantes

When I smoked my first joint in 1971 I had no idea of the role cannabis would play in my life or that I would be standing on stage in Amsterdam accepting the Lester Grinspoon Lifetime Achievement Award. Thank you all so much for sharing this moment with me. I thank High Times for initiating the Award.

This honor comes out of nowhere for me. I joined no contest and had no deadline. I was selected because I love to share cannabis cultivation information. The best part is that I have been learning from you for more than 30 years.

The changes have been profound during this time. We are making the transition from being viewed by society as criminals to being treated as we are, tax-paying citizens.The status of cannabis during the last three decades has gone from “devil´s weed” to accepted medicine. I have been fortunate to be a part of this change and share it with you.

I am proud to have influenced and be influenced by so many growers in the world.

Dr. Lester Grinspoon, the first recipient of this reward, made the first step to question the wisdom of politicians over that of science and medicine. Now we can carry on this tradition to free cannabis.

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Q&A with Jorge: When to Water and Fertilize

Q&A with Jorge

When to Water and Fertilize

Dear Jorge,

At the flowering stage, how often should I water? How often should I put fertilizer in the water?


Wilo, Internet

Dear Wilo,

It is impossible to give you a firm answer on this question; I can only give you guidelines. My best advice is to water when the plants need irrigating and fertilize when they need nutrients. There are many variables that dictate a plant’s water and fertilizer consumption. The age of the plant, container size, soil texture, temperature, humidity, and ventilation all contribute to water needs. Change any one of these variables, and the water consumption will change. Good ventilation is essential to promote a free flow of fluids, transpiration, and rapid growth. The healthier a plant, the faster it grows and the more water it needs. Small plants with a small root system in small containers must be watered often. Water frequently–as soon as the soil surface dries out. If exposed to wind, the small plants will dry out very quickly.
This indoor marijuana garden is set up on a flood and drain table for easy maintenance.
This indoor marijuana garden is set up on a flood and drain table for easy maintenance.


Inspect the soil in your outdoor marijuana garden regularly to make sure it is moist.
Inspect the soil in your outdoor marijuana garden regularly to make sure it is moist.
I like to use simple rules of thumb or in this case the rule of finger. When you can stick your finger into the container of a one to two-month-old plant and it is dry down to the first knuckle, about an a half inch to an inch, below the surface, it is ready to water, that is as long as drainage is good. For example, four-week-old clones flowering in 2- to 3-gallon containers need to be irrigated once or twice daily. Flowering marijuana uses high levels of water to carry on rapid floral formation. Withholding the water stunts the flower formation. Plants that suffer wind stress dry out much faster. A moisture meter, about $30, will take much of the guesswork out of irrigating. Remember that many times soil does will not hold the water evenly, and it develops dry pockets. Checking the moisture with a finger provides an educated guess but can damage the root system. A moisture meter will give an exact moisture reading without disturbing the roots. Lightly cultivating the soil surface will help the water penetrate the soil evenly and help avoid dry pockets.

As for fertilization, I recommend that you follow the manufacturer’s guidelines, because all fertilizers are not created equally.

Give small seedlings water every day. This group of seedlings needed to be watered twice a day when the weather got hot.
Give small seedlings water every day. This group of seedlings needed to be watered twice a day when the weather got hot.
Use a watering wand or water can with a breaker on the end to disperse irrigation water.
Use a watering wand or water can with a breaker on the end to disperse irrigation water.
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